P-2 (Reciprocal Exchange)

The P-2 nonimmigrant visa category applies to an alien coming temporarily to the U.S. to perform as an artist or entertainer, individually or as part of a group, under a reciprocal exchange program between an organization in the U.S. and an organization in another country.


  • An appropriate labor organization in the U.S. was involved in negotiating or concurred with the reciprocal exchange program; and
  • The alien must possess skills comparable to those of the U.S. artists and entertainers taking part in the program outside the U.S., and the terms of employment are similar.

Period of Stay:

  • The alien may be allowed to remain in the U.S. for the length of completion of the event, competition or performance, and not to exceed 1 year.
  • Extension of stay is available with the increments of up to 1 year.

Essential Support Personnel (P-2S):

  • Essential support personnel are highly skilled aliens coming temporarily as an essential and integral part of the competition or performance of a principal P-2, or because they perform support services which cannot be readily performed by a U.S. worker and which are essential to the successful performance or services of the principal P-2.
  • They include stagehands, trainers, or those persons having critical knowledge of the specific services to be performed.

Family of P-2:

  • Spouse and unmarried children under the age of 21 may come to the U.S. under P-4 status.
  • They are not permitted to work, but may attend school or college.